Lab Report: Isolation of Plant Pigments
The presence of different pigment molecules in the leaves of plants is due to the presence of carotenoids and chlorophyll. These pigments are of different colors such as red, green, yellow and orange. Separation of these different colors involves the application of three different processes namely solvent extraction, chromatography and spectrophotometry. Solvent extraction is used to extract these pigments from the leaves, chromatography applied to separate the extracted pigments. Finally, spectrophotometry is used to identify the different colors separated by chromatography. These three different processes follow each other in succession, and must be done with accuracy and precision. The most common plant pigment is chlorophyll that is green in color. On the other hand, carotenoids because of their oxygen component may be orange, red or yellow in color. Chlorophyll absorbs light at 450 nm and 650-700 nm in the blue and red wavelength regions. In the paper chromatogram, there will be different regions representing the different pigments. Beta carotene appears as yellow-orange, pheophytin as grey, chlorophyll a as blue-green, chlorophyll b as green and xanthophylls as yellow. There are also other pigments called the anthrocyanins that appear reddish in color.
All these pigments absorb light at different wavelengths and resolute on the paper chromatogram at different speeds. As a result, they will occupy different regions on the paper chromatogram based on their resolution. A look at the results of the paper chromatography reveals a chromatogram with five different regions occupied by different pigments. We observe an orange pigment, yellow pigment, yellow-green pigment, blue-green and reddish pigments in that order. These are the pigments that are clearly visible on the chromatogram. These pigments appear in this order from the solvent front. Remember the solvent used in this process must not dissolve any of these pigments. There are other pigments in blurred and appear grey in color. They appear at the bottom of the rest of the pigments. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on Outsourcing:
Outsourcing is most certainly not a new concept. It has existed for thousands of years. It has only been called outsourcing beginning a few decades ago. Both humans and organizations throughout history have never completed all tasks by themselves. In fact, during the Age of Egypt, human beings provided goods and services to others, while during the Middle Ages, people came together to buy and sell goods and services at the village market.
While human society migrated from an agricultural to an industrial basis, there was an increase in the amount of goods and services being outsourced. Entire communities moved out of rural areas and into villages, turning them into towns and then eventually into cities. Fewer people raised their own livestock, grew their own produce, or completed tasks themselves. Tasks that required a highs skill level were always done by third parties, such as carpentry, building, etc. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on Osama bin Laden:
Forty-five years ago, a new kind of evil was brought into this world. Osama bin Laden was born into a rich Saudi Arabian family, and he grew up to become a multimillionaire terrorist. He established at al-Qaeda, which is an Islamic terrorist organization. His actions and those of his followers have changed the world in a very frightening way.
On September 11,2001, members of his organization took action against our nation in the most unforgivable way imaginable. Although the events last year were against the United States, they will change the world for years to come. As a nation we have been scared, but we have also risen above it and pulled together. We are considered to be the strongest, most powerful and secure country in the world. But on that fateful day our sense of security was forever tarnished. It is tragic to think that any ignoramus who can learn how to crash a plane into a building could pose a potential threat to the world.
Osama bin Laden has implanted fear into the lives of all humankind, no longer do people feel safe getting onto an airplane or going in a restaurant or building that might be bombed or hit by another terrorist attack. If the most powerful country on earth is defenseless against this kind of strike, imagine how easily any small country could crumble and fall at the mercy of a lunatic like Osama. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on Racism:
The texts Mississippi Burning directed by Alan Parker, A Time To Kill by Joel Schumacher and Ghosts Of Mississippi by Rob Reiner explore the mistreatment of Negroes living in America`s South with a non-racist view. The three tests all explore the theme of racism and Negroes trying to reach the equilibrium with the white communities of Mississippi.
Parker`s Mississippi Burning is based on the Ku Klux Klan`s murders of three civil rights workers in 1964. A Time To Kill by Joel Schumacher is about a Negro Father who takes the law into his own hands after the legal system fails to condemn the two white men who raped and beat his daughter. Rob Reiner`s Ghost Of Mississippi is a true story about a white supremacist accused of the murder of NAACP officer Medgar Evers, 30 years after he was shot down in his driveway. Racism, Negroes gaining power and cinematic symbolism are all evident in the three texts, which made the films entertaining and also made the viewer feel quite empathetic towards the Negro`s. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on iPad:
Technological advancements shape the trends that manufacturers are taking in manufacture of electronic devices. One such company is Apple that has manufactured a device that enables its users experience the web, video, photos and email in a totally different and new way. Apple Company has designed an iPad with strong built in applications that efficiently takes advantage of the multi touch screen, and complex and advanced functionalities of the device. The device allows the users to work in any orientation and therefore allow the user to experience what they can not enjoy on any other device. The device is generally marketed for visual and audio media platform like periodicals, audio books, games, movies and music. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on Natural Resource Management:
At site two we find the habitat of an endangered bird found only in this area and needs to be protected. This particular site is a natural zone in which I would seek to ensure the protection of its native animals. Native animals are all animal species that as a result of natural processes occurred on land now designated as a park. In order to protect this endangered bird hunting will be prohibited in this area and the amount of human impact will be limited in and around the area. I would also conduct management programs that will help restore the species population by making sure there is an adequate habitat for the birds to live and are protected from any external threats. A small area around the birdÃ‚Â¡Ã‚Â¦s habitat will also be fenced in until the risk of predators and poaching is minimized and the population begins to restore itself. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on Teams and Leadership:
This essay will discuss my experiences of teams and leadership. It will discuss my experience as a team member at work or outside work. It will also talk about my team membership experience within the unit teams and leadership and my experience as a leader. It will then go on to discuss the different stages that contribute to establishment of effective teams, roles of team members, evaluate my preferred role within a team, analyse the key functions of an effective team leader and finally assess the four main leadership styles and the context in which it may be most successful. I will commence this essay by defining teams and leadership and the different types of teams. I will then progress to my personal experiences.
A team can be defined as a group of people working together to achieve a certain goal and objectives. They usually have a defined task or tasks, which were already set, and everyone in the team has a specific or defined role to play. For example, a football team, every player has a role to play on the field in order to win. They are said to be dependent on each other’s efforts. An effective team is one that achieves its aim in the most efficient way and is then ready to take on more challenging tasks if so required. Members of an effective team are likely to be united in a common purpose, trust each other, be committed, be open with each other, accept consensus decisions, and support one another and work through conflict. There are probably no clear and finite stages of development. Here are some phases of team development. People sometimes distinguish between Hierarchical tams and Expect teams. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on Pros and Cons of War:
War is devastating and tragic. It affects the daily lives and activities of the people of the nations involved in the war. It affects the economy of each nation involved and it can cause long-term affects on the soldiers involved in the actual fighting.
In the following essay I am going to tell you about the pros and cons of war. I will also be discussing the reasons behind why wars are started and I will be giving my personal opinion and thoughts about war. What are the reasons that cause wars?
Is war good for the economy? Would I like to be involved in a war? These are just a few of the questions I hope to answer in this essay. I hope that this essay will help give you a better understanding of war and that you will be able to form your own opinions about taking part in a war.
Pros & Cons of War
Some world leaders think there are advantages to waging war. Continue Reading »
Free example essay on Appearance is everything:
An individual is greatly influenced by the way he/she looks in the public arena. In this modern and even post-modern era, we now try to focus on one word: Ã¢â‚¬Å“individualityÃ¢â‚¬Â. Individuality is very important as with this we are able to show to the world what we really what to be and this can make us happy and content on the basis that we have achieved something personal and meaningful.
To create an image one usually has to change his/her personal appearance. This can be done in many different ways, for example, dressing up differently, or using cosmetic surgery to enhance and reduce the effects of ageing and diminishing beauty. Continue Reading »
The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee Williams, is about four persons who are trying to avoid their present real life by retreating into their separate worlds. The Glass Menagerie is a memory play because it is told from the memory of the narrator, Tom Wingfield. The readers live the story through Tom’s eyes, they see what he sees and feel what he feels. Both, the play’s style and content are inspired by memory.
According to Williams, “nostalgiaÃ¢â‚¬Â¦..is the first condition of the play” (Production Notes). The use of music, lack of realism and the frequent symbolism are all due to its origins in memory. As it will be illustrated in this paper, memory is a major theme of the play because most characters are haunted by it. It will also display the various symbols of escape in the play, and why some characters prefer to escape their lives by living in the past. Continue Reading »